Chii chinosarudzika - mhando uye mashandisirwo

Mutsetse we contour mutsetse unobatanidza zvinangwa zvehumwe hwakaenzana. Mune cartography, kudziparadzaniswa kunouya kuzoratidzira urefu hwakaenzana pamusoro peyero, senge pakati peyero yegungwa. Mepu ye contour idhairekesheni yekumiririra yakakwirira yeiyo geograph yedunhu inoshandisa mitsara. Iyo inoshandiswa nguva dzose kuratidza kukwira, kusverera uye kudzika kwemipata uye makomo. Nzvimbo pakati pemakanda maviri kudzokera kumashure pane mepu inonzi chimiro chepakati uye inoratidza musiyano wepamusoro.

NeArcGIS iwe unogona kudzidza kushandisa masenduru zviri nani, saka mepu inokwanisa kutaurirana-matatu-mudenga nzvimbo chero ipi nzvimbo pamepu ine mativi maviri. Nekutsanangura mepu yeanomira ega kana contours, mutengi anogona kududzira mutsara wepasi. Kunyangwe yakadzika kana kukwirira kwenzvimbo, geoforms inogona kutaura nezve geology yenzvimbo. Iwo nzvimbo pakati pemamwe maviri anosarudzika pamwe nemitsetse inopa mutengi neinokosha data.

Mitsetse yacho inogona kuve yakakotama, yakatwasuka kana musanganiswa wezviviri izvo zvisingayambuki mumwe nemumwe. Kunongedzera kureba kunoratidzwa neakaiparutivi, kazhinji hupamhi hwegungwa. Iyo inoteedzana nzvimbo pakati peiyo inoparadzanisa inoratidzira kukoshesa kwemukati wepasi pekudzidza uye inonzi "yepakati". Kana izvo zvimisikidzwa zvaparadzirwa zvakatsiga, ivo vanoratidza hunosakara. Kune rimwe divi, kana izvo zvimedu zvinoratidzwa kure kure, pane kutaura kwenzvimbo inotsvedza. Hova, nzira dzemvura mumupata dzinoratidzwa se "v" kana "u" pamepu yemakona.

Ma Curves anowanzo kupihwa mazita ne prefix "iso" izvo zvinoreva kuti "zvakafanana" muchiGiriki, zvichienderana nemhando yeiyo inoshanduka kuvezwa. Chipimiro chekutanga «iso» chinogona kukamurwa ne «isallo» icho chinotarisa kuti mutsetse wefomu unobatana uko shanduko dzinoshanduka dzinoitika nekumhanya kwakafanana panguva yakapihwa nguva. Zvisinei nenyaya yekuti izwi rekuti curve rinowanzo shandiswa, mamwe mazita anogara achishandiswa meteorology, uko kune mukana wakakura wekushandisa mapopu emepu ane zvinoverengeka zvinhu panguva chero ipi zvayo. Zvimwechetezvo, nzvimbo dzakakamuraniswa zvakapatsanurwa uye zvakasarwa zvinotaridza zviyero zvakafanana.

Nhoroondo yevanozvimiririra

Iko kushandiswa kwemitsetse inobatanidza mapepa ewakaringana kukosha, yakavapo kwenguva yakareba kunyangwe hazvo vaiziva mumwe nemumwe nemazita akasiyana. Chokutanga chakanyorwa kushandiswa kwemakara etsetse chakagadzirwa kuratidza kudzika kwenzira yemvura yeSpararne iri pedyo neHaarlem nemurume wechiDutch anonzi Pieter Bruinsz mugore re1584. Isolines zvinoreva kuti inogara yakadzika inozivikanwa se "isobats." Mumakore gumi ese e1700, mitsara mumadhirowa uye mamepu ave achishandiswa kufungidzira zvakadzika nehukuru hwemitumbi yemvura nenzvimbo. Edmond Halley mu1701 inoshandiswa isogonic mitsetse mitsetse ine humwe huwandu hwakanaka. Nicholas Cruquius akashandisa isobatas aine masvikiro akaenzana ne1 fathom kuti anzwisise uye dhizaini yeMerwede nzira yemubhedha mu1727 gore, nepo Philippe Buache akashandisa nguva yepakati ye10 fathoms yeiyo English Channel mu1737 gore. Mu1746 Domenico Vandelli akashandisa contours kubirira pamusoro, achidhiza giya reDuchy reModena neReggio. Mu1774 akatungamira iyo Schiehallion bvunzo kuti iwedzere kuyera kwePasi. Pfungwa yekuzvimiririra yakashandiswa kuongorora makomo emakomo seuchapupu. Kubva ipapo, kushandiswa kwezvikamu pamepu kwakava zano rakajairika. Zano iri rakashandiswa mu1791 naJL Dupain-Treil kutungamira kubva kuFrance uye mu1801 Haxo vakarishandisa kumakambani avo muRocca d'Aufo. Kubva panguva iyoyo zvichienda mberi, kwave kuri kuitwa kwakawanda kushandiswa kweanogadzira mapaipi uye kwakasiyana maapplication.

Mu1889 Francis Galton akatsanangura mazwi ekuti "isogram" sisitimu yekutarisa mitsara inoratidza kufanana kana kufananidzana mukukwiridzira kana kuwanda. Mazwi ekuti "isogon", "pekeeine" uye "isarithm" anowanzo kushandiswa kumiririra ari ega. Izwi rekuti "isoclins" rinoreva mutsetse unowana kutaridzika pamwe nehukwo hwakaenzana.

Mhando uye kushandiswa kwezvikonzero

Isolines yakashandiswa zvakanyanya mumepu uye zviratidzo zve graphic uye inoyerwa ruzivo. Mitsara ye Contour inogona kutorwa segadziriro kana semufananidzo wepiona. Iyo gorofa maonero ndiyo giraidhi inomiririra, kuitira kuti iye anoiona anogona kubva kumusoro. Iyo yekutarisa maonero inogara iri paramende inogoverwa yakatarwa. Semuenzaniso, nzvimbo dzenzvimbo dzinogona kuvezwa semurongedzo kana gadziriro yemitsetse, nepo kusvibiswa kwemhepo mudunhu kunogona kuoneka semuonero wefaira.

Kana iwe ukawana nzvimbo yakanyanyisa kuwira murongedzero, iwe uchaona kuti iwo anoparadzaniswa anobatana mune iyo contour ye "transporter" chimiro. Nezve mamiriro ezvinhu aya, mutsetse wekupedzisira webhurosi dzimwe nguva une mamakisi ekupedzesa anoratidza pasi rakadzika. Precipation inoratidzirwazve kuburikidza ne contours padhuze nepadhuze uye, munenge musina mhaka, vanobatana here kana kuti vakatsiga zvakasimba.

Mitsara ye Contour inoshandiswa muminda dzakasiyana, kuratidza yakawanda yeruzivo nezve nzvimbo. Chero zvazvingaitika, mazwi anoshandiswa kuti azvitsaure anogona kuchinja nemhando yeruzivo yavanotaurwa nayo.

Ecology: Isopleths inoshandiswa kugadzira mitsara inoratidza musiyano usingakwanise kufungidzirwa pane imwe nguva, zvisinei, iwo mutsigiro wezveruzivo unounganidzwa munzvimbo yakakura, semuenzaniso, ukuru hwehuwandu.

Saizvozvi, munharaunda yeIsoflor, isoplette inoshandiswa kubatanidza matunhu nemhando dzinofananirana, iyo inoratidza mienzaniso yekufambisa uye mapatani emarudzi emhuka.

Natural science: Pane mashandisirwo akasiyana ezvimwe zvinowanika musayenzi yezvakasikwa. Mepu dzekusvibisa ukobvu hwakakosha kuratidza nzvimbo dzine huwandu hwakakwira uye hwakaderera hwekusvibisa, huwandu hunobvumira mukana wekuti kusvibiswa kuchawedzera mudunhu.

Isoplates anoshandiswa kuratidza kudzora kwemvura, nepo isobelas ichishandiswa kuratidza nhanho dzekupokana munharaunda.

Pfungwa yemitsara yemakungwa yakashandiswa mukudyara uye mafomu ekuwaridza, anozivikanwa nekuderera kupatsika kwevhu kusvika padanho risingaperi mumatunhu, mumigwagwa yemumvura kana imwewo miviri yemvura

Social science: mitsetse ye contour inowanzo shandiswa mumagariro, kuratidza mhando kana kuratidza kuferefeta kwakasiyana kweimwe ndima mundima. Iro zita rekodhi fomu rinoshanduka pamwe nerudzi rwe data iyo inoshanda nayo. Semuenzaniso, mune zvehupfumi, zvimisikidzwa zvinoshandiswa kumiririra kumusoro izvo zvinokwanisa kushandura pamusoro penzvimbo, yakafanana neasodapane iyo inotaura nezve mutengo wekufambisa nguva, isotim inoreva mutengo wekufambisa kubva kunowanikwa zvinhu zvakagadzirwa, Isoquant hurukuro pamusoro pekuwedzera huwandu hwechizvarwa chemashoko akasarudzika anoshandisa

Statistics: Mukuyedzwa kuyerwa, zvimedu zvinoshandiswa kuwana nzira pamwe nekufungisisa kweukobvu hwekufungika, unonzi isodensity mitsara kana isodensanes.

Meteorology: Isolines inoshandisa zvikuru mune meteorology. Ruzivo rwunowanikwa kubva kunharaunda dzemamiriro ekunze uye mamiriro ekunze emuchadenga, runobatsira kugadzira mamepu emadhiorological contours, ayo anoratidza mamiriro ekunze sekunaya kwemvura, simba re pneumatic panguva yenguva. Isotherms nema isobars anoshandiswa mumaseti akawanda ekuvhara kuratidza akasiyana ehemodynamic zvikamu zvinopesvedzera mamiriro ekunze.

Kupisa kudzidzira: Iyo ndiyo mhando ye-kudzipine iyo inosanganisa iyo nhanho pamwe neiyo tembiricha yakaenzana, inonzi isotherms nenzvimbo dzinobatana neyakaenzana nerinotungamirirwa nezuva nemwaranzi inonzi isohel. Isolines, yakaenzana neavhareji tembiricha yekushisa pagore inonzi isogeotherms uye matunhu anoenderana neavhareji nguva yechando tembiricha kana yakaenzana inonzi isochemicals, nepo tembiricha yezhizha yekushisa inonzi isothere.

Wind kudzidza: Mune meteorology, mutsetse webhendi unobatanidza neiyo mhepo inogara ichimhanyisa ruzivo runonzi isotach. Isogon inoratidza inogara ichizara mhepo

Kunaya uye kunyorova: Mazwi akati wandei anoshandiswa kuzita kudziparura kunoratidza nzvimbo kana nzvimbo dzine mvura inonaya uye nematope zviri mukati.

  • Isoyet kana Isoyeta: ratidza kunaya kwemunharaunda
  • Isochalaz: iwo mtsetse inoratidza madunhu ane anogara achidzokorora kwechimvuramabwe.
  • Isobront: Iwo matungamiriri anoratidza nzvimbo idzo dzakawana dutu kuita panguva imwechete.
  • Isoneph ratidza gore rakapararira
  • Isohume: iwo mitsara inobatanidza matunhu nehama inogara ichiteerera
  • Isodrostherm: Inoratidza nzvimbo dzine dova point kudzikamisa kana kuwedzera.
  • Isopectic: inoratidza nzvimbo dzine musiyano wekugovera echando mazuva, nepo isotac ichireva mazuva ekuzvidzivirira.

Barometric kudzvinyirira: Mune meteorology, kumanikidza mhepo yekutsvagisa kwakakosha kutarisira fungidziro yemamiriro ekunze. Barometric yehuremu inoderera kusvika pamwero wegungwa painoratidzwa pamutsetse. Isobara mutsetse unobatanidza matunhu neanogara achiwedzera mamiriro ekunze. Isoallobars machira ane shanduko inorema kwenguva yakati. Mesoallobars, saka, anogona kuparadzaniswa mu ketoallobars uye anallobars, iyo inoratidza kuderera kwekuwedzera kwekushanduka kwehuremu zvakasiyana zvakasiyana.

Thermodynamics uye engineering: Kunyangwe aya minda yekuisa pfungwa pane dzimwe nguva inosanganisira gwara rechinongedzo, ivo vanowana mashandisiro avo mufanikiso mufananidzo wezveruzivo uye nhanho mifananidzo, chikamu chemhando dzakajairika dzekunze dzinoshandiswa mune idzi ndima dzekufunda ndedzi:

  • Isochor inomiririra kukosha kwehuwandu hwekuwedzera
  • Isoclines anoshandiswa mumamiriro ezvinhu akasiyana
  • Isodose inoreva pakuchengetwa kwechikamu chakaenzana cheiyo radiation
  • Isophote Chiedza chinogara chiripo

Magnetism: mitsetse yemvura yakadzika inobatsira kwazvo pakufunga nezve munda wakanaka wepasi. Batsira mukutsvaga kwekukwezva uye kuderera kwemagineti.

Isogonic kana isogonic contour mitsetse inoratidza mitsara yekungoramba ichidonha inodonha. Mutsetse uyo unoratidza ziro kudonha unonzi mutsara weAgonic. An pekeeine iyo inounza pamwechete imwe yeiyi nzira, pamwe chete nesimba rinowoneka rinotaridzwa inonzi isodynamic mutsetse. Mutsetse we isoclinic unounza pamwe chete kurongedzwa kwematunhu pamwe neiyo yakaenzana dive, nepo aclinic mutsara unounza pamwechete nzvimbo dzese uine zero inokwezva dhiri. Mutsetse we isophoric unowana yega yega nzira uye pamwe nekugara kwegore rimwe nerimwe kwekunakisa kuderera.

Geographical zvidzidzo: Iyo inonyanya kuzivikanwa yekushandiswa kwekuzvimirira - contours, ndeyemiririri wekukwira nekudzika kwenzvimbo. Iyi mitsara inoshandiswa mumepopu mepu kuratidza graphic urefu, uye bathymetric kuratidza zvakadzika. Mepu idzi topographic kana bathymetric mepu dzinogona kushandiswa kuratidza dunhu diki kana kumatunhu akadai sevhu rakakura. Iyo inoteedzana nzvimbo pakati peyeya contour mitsara, inonzi yepakati inoratidza kuwedzera kana kudzika pakati pezviviri.

Kana uchitaura nezvenharaunda ine mitsetse mitsetse, mitsetse iri padyo inoratidza kukwira kana kona, asi iwo matunhu ari kure anotaura nezvekuda kusimuka. Yakavharwa denderedzwa mukati inoratidza simba, nepo kunze kuchiratidza kudzikisira. Denderedzwa rakadzika kwazvo pamepu yepasi rinoratidza kuti nzvimbo yacho inogona kunge iine hushoma kana mahwanda, panzvimbo iyoyo mitsara inonzi "hachures" inoratidzwa kubva mukati medenderedzwa.

Geography uye Oceanography: Mamepu e Contour anoshandiswa mukuferefeta yehutsigiro hwehurongwa hwepamusoro, hwepanyama uye hwemari zvinhu zvinoratidzwa pamusoro penyika. Isopach ndiyo mitsetse mitsetse iyo inowana taridzo pamwe chete nehupamhi hwakaenzana hwegiyuniti zvikamu.

Uye zvakare, mune zvegungwa renyika, matunhu emvura akangoenzana nemitsara inoyevedza inonzi isopicnas, uye isohalins inobatanidza nzvimbo ine saline yemakungwa yakaenzana. Isobathytherms inotarisa pane kupisa kwakaenzana pagungwa.

Electrostatics: electrostatics mudenga inowanzo kuratidzwa pamwe nesopoti mepu. Ijika rinobatanidza mapini nemagetsi anogara aripo anonzi isopotential kana equipotential mutsetse.

Hunhu hwemitambo ye contour mumepu mepu

Mepu contour haisi kungomiririra kwekukwira, kana gwara rekukwira kana kudzika kwenzvimbo, asi zvakakwirira zvezvimisikidzwa zvinobvumira kunzwisisa kwakatanhamara kwemasango ari kuvezwa. Heano mamwe makuru makuru anonyanya kushandiswa mumepu:

  • Rudzi rwemutsetse: Inogona kuvezwa, yakasimba kana kumhanya. Rine dotot kana kumhanya inowanzoshandiswa kana paine ruzivo pane base contour inogona kuratidzwa netambo yakasimba.
  • Ukobvu hwomutsara: Zvinoenderana nekuti rakasimba sei kana rakasimba mutsetse wakadhonzwa. Mepu dziri mukati kazhinji dzinokwezvwa nemitsara yehurefu hwakasiyana kuratidza hunhu hwakasiyana huwandu kana mhando pakukwira kwenzvimbo.
  • Ruvara rwemutsara: Rudzi urwu rwemutsetse mutsara unodzika unodongorera mugwara kuti uchizive kubva pachigadziko chemukati. Line shading ino shandiswawo senzira neimwe yenhamba dzenhamba.
  • Nhamba yekukanda nhanho: Yakakosha mune dzese mepu mamepu. Iyo inowanzo gadzirwa padhuze neye contour mutsara kana ingaoneka mudhizaini contour. Iko kukosha kwenhamba kunobatsira kusiyanisa mhando yetsetse.

Topographic Mepu Zvishandiso

Iwo akajairika mapepa emapepa haisi iyo yega nzira yekugadzira mapainsins kana contours. Kunyangwe chokwadi kuti ivo vakakosha, pamwe nekufambira mberi mukugadzirwa, mamepu parizvino ari muchimiro chakawedzera. Pane zviridzwa zvakati wandei, zvinoshandiswa zvakasiyana siyana uye kurongwa kunowanikwa kuti ubatsire neizvi. Iyi mepu ichave yakarurama, inokurumidza kugadzira, inokwenenzverwa uye unokwanisa kuitumira kune vamwe vako nevaunoshanda navo! Tevere, kunongedzerwa kunoitwa kuchikamu cheizvi zvishandiso nerondedzero pfupi

Google Maps

Google Mepu ndeyekuchengetedza hupenyu pasirese. Iyo inoshandiswa kuongorora guta, uye nezvimwe zvinangwa zvakasiyana. Iyo ine "maonero" anoverengeka anowanikwa, semuenzaniso: traffic, satellite, topography, mugwagwa, nezvimwe. Kugadzirisa iyo «Landscape» denderedzwa kubva pane yakasarudzwa menyu inokupa iyo yepamusoroographic maonero (ine mitsetse mitsetse).

Gaia, ArcGIS, Backcountry Navigator (Zvishandiso Zvakasiyana)

Kufanana nezvimwe zvakawanda zvinoshandiswa zvinoteedzera zvese zviri zviviri Android uye iOS, vatengi ve iPhone vanogona kushandisa Gaia GPS. Iyo inopa vatengi vane mamepu emepu pamwe nemhando dzakasiyana. Aya mashandiro anogona kuve emahara kana kubhadharwa zvichienderana neshandiso yakaziviswa. Nzira dzekushandisa hazvishandiswe chete kuwana topographic data, asi dzinobatsira zvakanyanya. ArcGIS kunyorera uye dzakasiyana ESRI application inogona kungoshandiswa chete pamapu.

Caltopo

Iwe haugone kutamba neese kugona pamafoni, uye ino ndiyo nzvimbo yekushanda nzvimbo uye maPC ndiwo magamba. Pane matanho epamhepo neepamhepo akagadziridzwa ekukubatsira iwe kupedzisa rako rinotevera basa. Captopo iyi chirongwa-chakatemerwa kutungamira chishandiso chinokubvumira kuprinta yakagadzirirwa topographic mamepu. Uye zvakare, zvinokutendera kuti utumire / kuendesa kune ako eGPS zvishandiso kana mbozhanhare. Mukuwedzera, inotsigira kugadzirisa kana mamepu uye kuendesa kune vatengi vakasiyana.

Mytopo

Iyo inogona kuvonekwa semubatsiri anotsigira. Zviri kune imwe nhanho seCaltopo (yakataurwa pamusoro), zvisinei, inotarisa kuCanada neUnited States (isu tinovimba chaizvo kuti ivo vachazopedzeredza nyika dzakasiyana!). Ivo vanopa hwakakwana tsika mamepu, kusanganisira topographic mamepu, satellite mifananidzo uye yakavhurika-pasi kudzinga mamepu chero US dunhu. UU. Mamepu akanyanya zvemhando yepamusoro, ayo iwe aunogona kutarisa online pasina muripo kana kutumira iwo seyokutanga nhanho emitengo midiki.

Unogona kusaina ArcGIS Kudzidziswa Rarama pane Edunbox ine 24 / 7 rutsigiro uye hupenyu hwehupenyu.


Icho chinyorwa mubatanidzwa weTwinGEO, neshamwari yedu Amit Sancheti, anoshanda se SEO Executive mukati Edunbox uye ipapo anobata mabasa ese anoenderana neSEO uye kunyora zvemukati.

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