Dhijitari Twin - Philosophy yeiyo nyowani yedhijitari yekuchinja

Hafu yeavo vakaverenga chinyorwa ichi vakazvarwa vaine tekinoroji mumaoko avo, vajaira shanduko yedhijitari seyakapihwa. Mune imwe hafu isu ndisu takaona kuti zera reruzivo rakasvika sei vasina kukumbira mvumo; kurovera pamusuwo nekushandura zvatakaita mumabhuku, bepa, kana matemikari echinyakare emakomputa ayo aisakwanisa kupindura zvinyorwa zvealphanumeric uye magirafu emutsara. Zvinoitwa neiyo BIM-yakatarisana nesoftware parizvino, iine chaiyo-nguva kupa, yakabatana neiyo geospatial mamiriro, kupindura maitiro anoenderana neiyo bhizinesi modhi uye nzvimbo dzinoshandiswa kubva kumafoni, humbowo hwekusvika pakapihwa neindasitiri iyi mushandisi kudiwa.

Mamwe mazwi eiyo yapfuura digital revolution

PC - CAD - PLM - Internet - GIS - email - Wiki - http - GPS 

Chinhu chega chega chine hunyanzvi chaive nevateveri vayo, avo vanonamira kune modhi yakashandura maindasitiri akasiyana Iyo PC yaive chigadzirwa chakachinja manejimendi ezvinyorwa zvepanyama, iyo CAD yakatumira kumatura matura ekudhirowa uye chiuru zvigadzirwa zvaisakwanira mumadhirowa, tsamba yemagetsi yakazova nzira yedhijitari nekumisidzana yekutaurirana nenzira yakasarudzika; vese vakapedzisira vave kutongwa nemiyero ine kugamuchirwa kwepasirese; zvirinani kubva pamaonero eanopa. Iko kushandurwa kubva kune yapfuura dhijitari shanduko yakanangana nekuwedzera kukosha kune geographic uye alphanumeric ruzivo, iro rakazvimiririra rakapa akawanda emabhizinesi anhasi. Iyo modhi iyo shanduko idzi dzakafamba yaive yekubatana kwepasirese; Ndokunge, http protocol yatisina kukwanisa kubvisa kusvika nhasi. Aya matsva matanho akatora mukana ruzivo, mamiriro ekubatanidza uye akachinja kuita matsva tsika dzatinoona nhasi seUber, Airbnb, Udemy, Netflix.

Asi nhasi, isu tiri pamusuwo wenyonganiso yedhijitari, inokanganisa izvi zvese.

Mutsva mazwi:

Dziviriro Chain - 4iR - IoT - Dhijitari Twin - Huru Dhata - AI - VR 

Nepo mazwi matsva achiratidzika kunge anongoreva mafashoni eha hashtag, hatigone kuramba kuti yechina maindasitiri echimurenga ave pedyo, achizviparadzanisa zvakasiyana muzvikamu zvakawanda. IInternet nguva ino inovimbisa kuve yakawanda; kutora mukana wezvose zvakawanikwa kusvika parinhasi, asi kutyora mapadigms asina kusvika padanho remusika uyo hauchabatanidze chete makomputa nemhashu; asi, inobatanidza zviitiko zvevanhu mumamiriro avo ezvinhu.

Hapana kana chirevo chimwe chinogona kuvimbisa kuti mamiriro ezvinhu matsva achange akadii, kunyangwe izwi revatungamiriri vemaindasitiri vakakosha richikurudzira zvakawanda kwatiri, kana tikatora chimiro chakasimba uye humbowo hwehana hwekukura. Zvimwe zviono, chiyero uye mikana yeiyi shanduko nyowani ine mukana wekupindirana weavo vanotarisira kutengesa nhasi. Hurumende, mune ziso rakaganhurirwa revatungamiriri vavo, kazhinji vanoona izvo bhizinesi kana kusarudzwazve chinzvimbo chavo chingamiririre munguva pfupi, asi nekufamba kwenguva, zvinosemesa, ndevashandisiwo zvavo, vanofarira zvavanoda, vane shoko.

Uye kunyangwe chiitiko chitsva ichi chichivimbisa mitemo iri nani yekugara pamwe, kodhi yemahara inogara pamwe chete neiyo yakasarudzika, kuchengetedza kwezvakatipoteredza, zviyero zvinobva muchibvumirano. Hapana munhu anovimbisa kuti vatambi vakaita sehurumende uye vadzidzi vechikoro vanozosvika pabasa ravo munguva kwayo. Aihwa; hapana anogona kufungidzira kuti zvichave zvakaita sei; isu tinongoziva zvichaitika.

Digital Twin - Iyo nyowani TCP / IP?

Uye sezvo tichiziva kuti zvichaitika nenzira yekuti isu tisingakwanise kuona shanduko dzinoitika zvishoma nezvishoma, zvichave zvakafanira kugadzirira shanduko iyi. Tinoziva kuti pachiitiko ichi kungwara nekubvumirana kunodzivirirwa kune avo vanonzwisisa kunzwisisika kwemusika wepasi rese wakabatana uye panowedzerwa kukosha hakuonekwi chete muzviratidzo zvemitengo yezvinhu asiwo nekupindura kwemutengi anowedzera simba. mune mhando yemasevhisi. Mitemo pasina mubvunzo ichaita basa ravo rakanakisa mukuona muyero pakati pekugadzirwa kweindasitiri nezvinodiwa nevashandisi vekupedzisira.

Iyo Dhijitari Twin inoshuva kumira payo muuzivi hweiyo shanduko yedigital.

Chii chirevo chitsva chinoda kuitei?

Kuti iyo http / TCIP ive iyo yakajairika kutaurirana protocol, iyo nanhasi inoramba ichishanda nekushanduka kwetekinoroji uye nzanga, yaifanirwa kupfuura nenzira yehutongi, kuvandudza uye democracy / hudzvanyiriri iyo mushandisi zvakajairika hazvizivikanwe. Padivi iri, mushandisi haana kubvira aziva IP kero, hazvichadiwe kunyora www, uye injini yekutsvaga yakatsiva kudiwa kwekunyora http. Nekudaro, kunyangwe hazvo indasitiri ichikahadzika kutadza kwevakwegura kuseri kwechiyero ichi, anoramba ari gamba rakatyora paradigms yekutaurirana kwepasi rose

Asi iyo protocol nyowani inopfuura kupfuura yekubatanidza makomputa uye nhare. Ikozvino gore masevhisi, pane kuchengetedza mapeji uye data, chikamu chehupenyu hwezuva nezuva hwevagari, hurumende nemabhizinesi. Ndicho chaicho chimwe chezvikonzero zvekufa kweprotocol yekutanga, zvichibva paI IP kero, nekuti izvozvi zvakafanira kubatanidza zvishandiso zvinobva kumuchina wekuwacha zvinoda kutumira meseji yapedza kutenderera mbatya, kune sensors zambuko iro Yechokwadi-yenguva yekutarisa inofanirwa kuzivisa yako yekuneta chimiro uye kuda kwekuchengetedza. Izvi, mune vhezheni yevasingazive, yezvatinoti internet yezvinhu; kune iyo protocol nyowani inofanira kupindura.

Iyo protocol nyowani, kana ichida kuve yakajairwa, inofanirwa kuve nekwanisi yekubatanidza zvinopfuura ruzivo munguva chaiyo. Sekuyera, inofanirwa kusanganisira iyo yese iripo uye nyowani yakavakirwa nharaunda, pamwe neinopindirana neyepanyama nharaunda uye sevhisi inopihwa munharaunda, hupfumi uye zvakatipoteredza zvinhu.

Kubva pane bhizinesi maonero, iyo nhanho nyowani inofanira kutaridzika zvakanyanya kunge inomiririra yedhijitari yezvinhu zvepanyama kunge purinda, furati, chivakwa, zambuko. Asi kupfuura kuenzanisira, zvinotarisirwa kuwedzera kukosha kune mashandiro; saka iyo inobvumidza zvirinani kuziva sarudzo uye nekudaro mhedzisiro iri nani.

Kubva pakuona kwenyika, protocol itsva inofanirwa kuve nekugona kugadzira ecosystems emazhinji akabatana mhando; kufanana nefuma yese yenyika, kuitira kuti isunungure kukosha kwakawanda nekushandisa iyo datha yeruzhinji zvakanaka.

Kubva pamaonero ekugadzira, iyo protocol nyowani inoda kukwanisa kuenzanisa hupenyu hwekutenderera; kurerutswa kune zvinoitika kuzvinhu zvese, zvinhu zvakaita semugwagwa, rangano, mota; zvisingaonekwe senge seturu yekudyara, chirongwa chakarongeka, gannt dhayagiramu. Chiyero chitsva chinofanirwa kurerutsa kuti vese vanozvarwa, vanokura, vanogadzira zvabuda, uye vanofa ... kana kushandurwa.

Iwo mapatya edhijitari anoshuva kuve iyo protocol nyowani.

Chii chinotarisirwa nemugari weiyo Dhijitari shanduko.

Mamiriro ezvinhu akanakisa ekuti zvichave sei mumamiriro ezvinhu matsva aya, hakufungi nezve izvo Hollywood inozivisa kwatiri, zvevanhu vari mukati me dome inotongwa nevakagadziriswa iyo inodzora zviitiko zvevapukunyuki vepasipalyptic nyika iyo isingachakwanisi kuziva chokwadi chakawedzerwa. yekufungidzirwa kutevedzera; kana kune imwe yakanyanyisa, kurongeka kwekufungidzira uko zvinhu zvese zvakanyatsonaka zvekuti manzwiro ekuti bhizinesi revanhu arasikirwe.

Asi chimwe chinhu chinofanira kufungidzirwa nezveramangwana; Zvirinani pane ino chinyorwa.

Kana tikazviona mukushuvira kwevashandisi vakuru vaviri muchirongwa chemberi-kumashure chehofisi, vatinozodaidza kuti maStakeya. Munhu anobata basa anoda kuve neruzivo rwekuita sarudzo dzakanaka, uye mugari anoda masevhisi ari nani kuti abudirire; kuyeuka kuti uyu anobata mukana anogona kuve mugari wega kana muboka rinoshanda kubva kune yeruzhinji, yakavanzika kana yakasanganiswa basa.

Saka tinotaura nezve masevhisi; Ini ndiri Golgi Alvarez, uye ndinoda kuvaka kuwedzerwa kune yechitatu furati yechivako changu; iyo yakavakwa nababa vangu muna 1988. Parizvino, ngatikanganwe mazwi, mabhureki kana mazita anokanganisa mamiriro ezvinhu aya uye ngatingozvichengeta zviri nyore.

Juan Medina anogara kuti chikumbiro ichi chibvumidzwe munguva pfupi, pamutengo wakaderera, nekujeka kwazvo, kutsvaga uye nehuwandu hushoma hwezvinodiwa uye nevanyori.  

Chiremera chinoda kuve neruzivo rwakakwana kuti chibvumire danho iri zvakachengeteka, kuitira kuti riteverwe kuti ndiani, chii, riini uye kupi ari kuendesa chikumbiro: nekuti kana changobvumidza danho iri, rinofanirwa kunge riine chinzvimbo chekupedzisira cheshanduko yakaitwa , iine kurondwa kumwe chete kwainopa. Izvi zvinopindura kune fungidziro yekuti «Iko kushandurwa kwezvivakwa zvehungwaru, nzira dzemazuvano dzekuvaka uye nehupfumi hwedigital zviripo zvinowedzera mikana yekuvandudza hupenyu hwevagari".

 Iko kukosha iyo data inotora mune ino chiitiko, inodarika nekuva imwechete yekupedzisira-yakatsanangurwa modiki yakasarudzika yepasi rese renyama; pachinzvimbo, isu tinotaura nezve kuva nemhando dzakabatana maererano nechinangwa chebasa rekufambiswa:

  • Mugari izvo zvaari kuda mhinduro (maitiro),
  • Ndiani anopa masimba anoda mutemo (geospatial zoning), 
  • Mugadziri anopindura dhizaini (Model BIM to be), 
  • muvaki anopindura zvawanikwa (chirongwa, bhajeti, zvirongwa), 
  • ivo vatengesi vanopindura kune runyorwa rwezvipfeko (zvakatemwa), 
  • maneja anopindura pamugumo wekupedzisira (BIM senge yakavakwa mhando).

Zviripachena kuti kuve nemhando dzakabatana dzinofanirwa kurerutsa vamiririri, kugona kugadzirisa zvibvumikiso izvo muzviitiko zvakanaka kwazvo kuzvishandira wega mushandisi wekupedzisira; Kana zvirinani, zvakajeka uye zvinoteedzana, zvakaderedzwa kusvika pamatanho mashoma. Pakupedzisira, izvo zvinoda mugari kuve nemvumo uye kuvaka; nepo hurumende ichibvumidza zvinoenderana nemirau yayo uye nekuwana ruzivo rweyekupedzisira nyika. Nekudaro, iko kubatana pakati pemberi-kumashure hofisi mamodheru kuri mune matatu chete mapoinzi, ayo anowedzera kukosha.  

Muridzi akaita kuvaka kwaaitarisira, Hurumende yakavimbisa kuti basa rakaitwa zvichiteerana nemirau uye pasina kuedza kukuru kuvimbiswa kuchengetedza ruzivo rwake kuvandudzwa. Musiyano wacho ndewechinangwa chete.

Kunyangwe kune iye muuridzi, gadziri uye mupi wezvinhu zvishandiso kukosha kwakawedzerwa zvimwe zvinhu; asi nenzira imwecheteyo hukama ihwohwo hunofanirwa kurerutswa.

Kana tikazviona kubva pamaonero eenzanisiro, chishandiso ichi chatakaita pakuvaka chinogona kumisikidzwa nenzira dzakadai: kutengeswa kwepfuma, mogeji, kunyorera chikwereti, rezinesi rekushandisa bhizinesi, kushandisa zviwanikwa, kana kugadzirisa yezve kuronga kwemaguta. Misiyano iri muzvinhu zvakaita senge uye nzira; asi kana vaine imwechete domeini modhi, ivo vanokwanisa kukwanisa kubatana.

MaDhijitari Mapatya, anoshuvira kuva iwo mufananidzo uyo unobvumidza kudzika nekubatanidza maimiriri ehuwandu, ane huwandu hwakasiyana hwechiyero, hwechiyero chidimbu uye nzira dzinosvika.

Chii chatinogona kutarisira kubva kune Gemini Nheyo.

Muenzaniso wekare inyaya yakapusa yakashandiswa kune manejimendi pakati pemugari nechiremera; asi sekuonekwa mundima dzekupedzisira, mhando dzakasiyana dzinofanirwa kuve dzakabatana. zvikasadaro cheni yacho inodambura pakabatana zvisina kusimba. Kuti izvi zviitike, zvinodikanwa kuti shanduko yedhijitari inosanganisira iyo yese yakavakirwa nharaunda nenzira yakajairwa, kuitira kuti zvirinani kushandiswa, kushanda, kugadzirisa, kuronga uye kuendesa zvinhu zvemunyika nemunharaunda, masisitimu uye masevhisi anovimbiswa. Inofanira kuunza mabhenefiti kune yese nzanga, hupfumi, makambani uye nharaunda.

Parizvino, muenzaniso unokurudzira kwazvo iUK. Iine chikumbiro chayo chakakosha Gemini Misimboti uye nzira yayo yemugwagwa; Asi tisati tatumidza shamwari kuti vagare vachipesana nezvazvino uye yavo yetsika tsika yekugara vachiita zvese nenzira dzakasiyana asi zvine mhemberero. Kusvikira nhasi, maBritish Standards (BS) ave nemhedzisiro yepamusoro pamiyero ine chiyero chepasi rose; uko basa rezvino zviitwa senge i3P, ICG, DTTG, UK BIM Alliance inokudzwa.

Nekuda kweizvozvi zveUnited Kingdom, tinoshamiswa neari kuvhurwa neDigital Framework Working Group (DFTG), iyo inounza mazwi makuru kubva kuhurumende, vadzidzi vezvikoro neindasitiri kuti vasvike pakubvumirana pane zvirevo uye kukosha kwakakosha. Nhungamiro yakakosha yekuvandudza shanduko yedhijitari. 

Nehutungamiriri vari pamusoro paMark Enzer, iyo DFTG yakasaina chiitiko chinonakidza chekugadzirwa kweiyo Sisitimu iyo inovimbisa manejimendi anoshanda eruzivo munzvimbo dzese dzakavakwa, kusanganisira nekuchinjana kwakachengetedzeka kwedata. Iri basa, kusvika parizvino, rine zvinyorwa zviviri:

Nheyo dzeGemini:

Aya matungamira e "kuziva" kukosha kwehurongwa hwekutarisira ruzivo, iyo inosanganisira zvirevo 9 zvakamisikidzwa mumaseru matatu seinotevera:

Chinangwa: Ruzhinji runako, Kukosha kusikwa, Chiratidzo.

Kuvimba: Kuchengetedza, Kujeka, Mhando.

Basa: Dura, Kuporesa, Shanduko.

Iyo Roadmap.

Ichi chirongwa chakarongedzwa kusimudzira gwara rekutonga ruzivo, paine mashanu hova anochengeta Gemini hukuru munzira yekuchinjisa.  

Imwe yeiyi hova ine yayo yakaoma nzira, ine zviitiko zvakabatana asi zvinoenderana sezvakaratidzwa mugirafu. Aya mafambiro ndeaya:

  • Kusvikira, iine 8 yakakosha uye 2 isiri-yakakosha mabasa. Kiyi nekuti dudziro yayo inofanirwa kumisikidza vanogonesa.
  • Kutonga, iine 5 yakakomba uye 2 isiri-yakakosha mabasa. Ndirwo rwizi pamwe nekushomeka kushoma.
  • Zvakajairika, ine 6 yakakosha uye 7 isiri-yakakosha mabasa, ndiyo yakanyanya kuwanda.
  • Enablers.
  • Chinja, 7 yakaoma uye 1 isiri-yakakosha mabasa. Ndiyo yazvino ine nzira yakakosha tambo inoitisa.

Sezvo zvinogona kuzivikanwa kubva pachiyero ichi, hazvisi kungoitirwa kuUK seyake yedigital shanduko Brexit, kana kufarira kwaro kuruboshwe nzira yekutyaira. Kana iwe uchida kusimudzira modhi yekubatanidza madhijitari mapatya ane kusvika kwenyika, iwe unofanirwa kusimudza chimwe chinhu chinogona kuenderana neindasitiri, kunyanya maererano nematanho. Zvinhu zvinotevera zvinobuda pachena mune izvi:

  • 1.5 Kuenderana pamwe nezvimwe zvirongwa.

Masikirini echinhu ichi anopfuura zvakakwana, kuremekedza uku kubheja; ISO zviyero, European zviyero (CEN), kuwirirana neInovitate UK, Kuvaka SMART, W3C, BIM UK, DCMS, i3P, DTTG, IETF.

  • 4.3 Kusvika kwenyika.

Pano tinotaura nezve kuziva uye kugadzirisa imba yekutandarira ine zvirongwa, matanho uye mikana mumamiriro epasi rese nema synergies. Zvinonakidza, kuti ivo mune kwavo kufunga kudzidza kwemaitiro akanaka enyika idzo dzave kutoedza; kusanganisira mukana wekubatanidza boka rezvinodzidziswa ruzivo, kusanganisira Australia, New Zealand, Singapore neCanada.

Gwaro rechikadzi rakanzi Gemini Nheyo, kuzadzisa chibvumirano chakakosha pakati pevakuru vemaindasitiri, chingave icho chaive "Cadastre 2014» mukupera kwa2012, iyo yakaisa zvirevo zvemamiriro ezvinhu epasi, ayo akazotevera doe Consensus inoshanda pamwe nemaitiro akadai seINSPIRE, LandXML, ILS uye OGC, yakava ya19152 iyo ISO-XNUMX standard, inozivikanwa nhasi seLADM.

Muchiitiko ichi, zvichange zvichinakidza kuona kuti vatungamiriri vakanyanya muindasitiri yekugadzira tekinoroji avo vauya nemhando yavo vanowana kubvumirana; Mukufunga kwangu kukuru, iwo akakosha:

  • Boka reSIEMENS - Bentley - Microsoft - Topcon, iyo nenzira inogadzira mamiriro anenge angangoita akazara muGeo -jini kutenderera; kutora, kutevedzera, kugadzira, kushanda uye kubatanidza.
  • IHEXAGON boka - iyo ine seti yakafanana yakafanana mhinduro ine inonakidza chiyero muposheni yakakamurwa mune zvekurima, zvinhu, ndege, kuchengetedza, kudzivirira nehungwaru, mugodhi, kutakura uye hurumende.
  • Boka reTrumble - iyo inochengetedza yakaenzana neyepfuura mbiri, ine zvakawanda zvakanakira zvekumisa mubatanidzwa uye wechitatu mapato, senge ESRI.
  • Boka re AutoDesk - ESRI kuti mukuyedza yamazuvano tsvaga kuwedzera mapoturu emisika mavanonyanya kuita.
  • Zvakare vamwe vatambi, avo vane yavo yekutanga, mienzaniso uye misika; neavo vanofanirwa kujekesa kutora kwavo uye kubvumirana. Semuenzaniso, General Electric, Amazon kana IRS.

Saka, sekunge baba vangu pavakanditora kuenda ku rodeo kunoona kuti makomana emombe aibata sei nzombe, kubva mudanga redu isu hatina imwe sarudzo kunze kwekucherechedza zvatino fungidzira. Asi ichave iri tambo huru, uko iyo inozadzisa kubvumirana iri hombe, iko kuenderana kunowedzera kukosha kupfuura poindi dzezvikamu muhomwe.

Basa reBIM seDhijitari Mapatya

BIM yakave nekukanganisa kwakanyanya uye kuenderera mberi mune imwe nguva ingatariswe, kwete nekuti inofambisa dhizaini yemamodeli e3D, asi nekuti ndiyo nzira yakabvumidzwa nevatungamiriri vakuru vezvivakwa zvekugadzira, zvekugadzira nekugadzira.  

Zvekare, mushandisi wekupedzisira haazive nezve zvinhu zvakawanda zvinoitika mune yekuseri kwemareji; somushandisi weC ArchiCAD aigona kutaura kuti akatozviita asati adaidzwa BIM; zvimwe ichokwadi, asi chiyero senzira pamazinga 2 ne3 zvinopfuura pamusoro pekushandura ruzivo, uye chinangwa chekuronga mashandiro ehupenyu uye denderedzwa rehupenyu kwete chete ezvikamu asiwo mamiriro.

Wobva wouya mubvunzo. BIM haina kukwana?

Pamwe mutsauko wakakura weizvo zvinonzi neDhijitari Mapatya ndezvekuti kubatanidza zvese hazvisi zvekubatanidza zvigadzirwa chete. Kufunga mune zvakabatana mamiriro ezvinhu epasirese zvinoreva masystem ekubatanidza ayo asingaite kunge ane geographic modelling. Nekudaro, isu tiri chete mune nhanho nyowani yekukudziridza mamiriro acho, uko pasina munhu achatora iro basa raakazadzisa uye acharamba achizadzisa iyo BIM nzira, asi chimwe chinhu chakakwira kumusoro chinotora kana kuchisanganisa.

Ngatione mienzaniso:

Chrit Lemenn paakatsvaga kuunza iyo Core Cadastre Domain Model kune chiyero chekutarisirwa kwenzvimbo, aifanirwa kurovera nhungamiro kubva kuINSPIRE nekomiti yehunyanzvi pamamiriro enzvimbo. Saka chero tichida kana kwete

  • Mune mamiriro eINSPIRE, ISO: 19152 ndiyo chiyero checadastral manejimendi,
  • Kana dziri dzeopamusoro-soro makirasi eLADM, iwo anofanirwa kutevedzera nemagariro eOGC TC211.

LADM ndiyo yakasarudzika chiyero cheruzivo rwevhu. Nechikonzero ichi, kunyangwe iyo LandInfra standard ichiisanganisira, inotyora nekutsvaga kwekureruka, nekuti zviri nani kuve neyero yezvivakwa uye imwe yevhu, wozvibatanidza ivo panopanana ruzivo rwunowedzera kukosha.

Nekudaro, mune mamiriro eDhijitari Mapatya, BIM inogona kuenderera iri nzira iyo inotonga zviyero zveyenzaniso modhi; nhanho 2, neese kuomarara kwedata iro dhizaini uye kuvaka kunoda. Asi mashandiro uye kusanganisa kwedanho rechitatu, kunotakura akareruka maitiro ekuenda kune yekubatanidza kweakawedzera kukosha uye kwete whim kuti zvese zvinofanirwa kutaurwa mumutauro mumwe chete.

Pachave nezvakawanda zvekutaura nezvazvo; kukosha kwe data, kutyorwa kwezvipinganidzo, ruzivo rwakavhurika, kushanda kwezvinhu zvakasikwa, chisikwa chakabudirira, kushanda ...

"Iko kushandurwa kwezvivakwa zvine hungwaru, nzira dzekuvaka dzechizvino uye hupfumi hweadijithali iripo mikana inowedzera yekuvandudza hupenyu hwenharaunda"

Ndiani anokwanisa kutora boka revatambi vanokosha seri kwehunyanzvi uhwu, kunzwisisa kukosha kweruzhinji rwevanhu, hupfumi, nzanga uye zvakatipoteredza ... achava nezvakawanda zvakanakira.  

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